James Davis, Rapes occurred, and many slave women were forced to submit regularly to white males or suffer harsh consequences. Multiracial American Mulatto was used as an official census racial category in the United States until However, slave girls often courted a sexual relationship with the master, or another male in the family, as a way of gaining distinction among the slaves, avoiding field work, and obtaining special jobs and other favored treatment for their mixed children Reuter, People of black ancestry with known white lineage were classified as white, in contrast to the " one-drop rule " put into law in the early 20th century in the United States. A person with African ancestry could be considered legally white if he could prove that at least one person per generation in the last four generations had been legally white. In the early colonial years, working-class people lived and worked closely together, and slavery was not as much of a racial caste. But, Paul Heinegg has documented that most of the free people of color in the — censuses in the Upper South were descended from unions and marriages during the colonial period in Virginia between white women, who were free or indentured servants, and African or African-American men, servant, slave or free. In colonial and antebellum times in certain locations, persons of three-quarters or more white ancestry were considered legally white. The term "mulatto" was also used to refer to the children of whites who intermarried with South Asian indentured servants brought to the British American colonies by the East India Company. After being born illegitimate, he became a shoemaker and privateer, ultimately one of the wealthiest men of the New World. Andrew Durnford of New Orleans, which had a large population of free people of color , mostly of French descent and Catholic culture, was listed in the census as owning 77 slaves. Dumas of New Orleans, a free person of color, emancipated all his slaves and organized them into a company in the Second Regiment of the Louisiana Native Guards. Thus, children born to slave mothers were born into slavery, regardless of who their fathers were; children born to white mothers were free, even if mixed-race. Certain tribes of Indians of the Inocoplo family in Texas referred to themselves as "mulatto". In Haitian history, such mixed-race people, known in colonial times as free people of color, gained some education and property before the Revolution. Numerous leaders throughout Haiti's history have been people of color. For example, William Ellison owned 60 slaves.