Similarly, among the public there may be little consensus on what constitutes aggressive and violent behavior. Background for the Review Different people may have quite different things in mind when they think of media violence. Substance abuse prevention and the media. Other experiments have shown that it is the violence in video games, not the excitement that playing them provokes, that produces the increase in aggression [ 26 ]. And we're not talking about a small group. Luckily, there are mitigating effects: Children, adolescents, and the media: Create a false sense of reality. Correspondingly, the recent increase in the use of mobile phones, text messaging, e-mail, and chat rooms by our youth have opened new venues for social interaction in which aggression can occur and youth can be victimized — new venues that break the old boundaries of family, neighborhood, and community that might have protected our youth to some extent in the past. This has been shown for multiple media types, including video games Beck et al. Thus, anything that promotes aggressive behavior in young children statistically is a risk factor for violent behavior in adults as well. But how does our culture really affect us? Given that culture is a recursive process, as much as it affects us, we can change it. This is true of preschoolers, elementary school children, high school children, college students, and adults. While the effects appeared weaker for female 40 years ago [ 32 ], they appear equally strong today [ 33 ]. Are some men more likely to be influenced by this kind of material than others?