Anthropology has shown that masculinity itself has social status , just like wealth, race and social class. While social conditioning obviously plays a role, it can also be observed that certain aspects of the masculine identity exist in almost all human cultures. The SRY gene on the Y chromosome , however, interferes with the default process, causing a chain of events that, all things being equal, leads to testes formation, androgen production, and a range of both pre-natal and post-natal hormonal effects covered by the terms masculinization or virilization. However, these extreme positions are rarely found in reality; actual behavior of individuals is usually somewhere between these poles. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement in recent decades, men in some societies now compete with women for jobs that traditionally excluded women. United States Presidents George H. Within sociology such labeling and conditioning is known as gender assumptions and is a part of socialization to better match a culture's mores. Well into prehistoric culture, men are believed to have assumed a variety of social and cultural roles which are likely similar across many groups of humans. For poorer men among the working classes, the need to support their families, especially during periods of industrial change and economic decline, forced them to stay in dangerous jobs working long arduous hours, often without retirement. In many cultures displaying characteristics not typical to one's gender may become a social problem for the individual. Many industrialized countries have seen a shift to jobs which are less physically demanding, with a general reduction in the percentage of manual labor needed in the work force see White-collar worker. In western culture , for example, greater masculinity usually brings greater social status.